The World Wide Web, developed
as a graphical interface for the internet, is an extraordinary
research tool with its document delivery system and hypertext
linkages that bring text, images, audio, and video to the desk
top. Each day, more and more libraries and organizations are
digitizing portions of their collections and are adding the
full-text of literary works, diaries, memoirs, and statistical
data to the Web. As a result, the Web is increasingly valuable to
researchers all over the world. In American Studies, where
interests range from the study and teaching of the English
language, to Frederick Douglass' autobiography, to Marilyn Monroe
as myth and legend, to images of factory life at the turn of the
century, to the X-Files' phenomenon, to the press and the First
Amendment, to socio-economic comparisons of American cities,
etc., the Web is almost indispensable.
This article is an introduction to research in American Studies
on the Web, focusing on research strategy and methodology, and
the evaluation of information that is found on the Web. Although
the Web is fundamentally unstable tomorrow), URL addresses (and
links in the online edition) have (sites are here today and gone
been included to some useful (and hopefully, stable) Web sites in
American Studies. All links and addresses were active on 5 April
The Web is often referred to as a 'virtual
library.' There are problems with this analogy, however. Although
libraries and the Web both contain texts, audio and visual
resources, as well as statistical information, the approach to
the selection, organization and retrieval of information is quite
different. For Clifford Lynch, a librarian and computer
scientist, the internet is not 'the world's library for
the digital age...' and it is not 'designed to support the
organized publication and retrieval of information, as libraries
are.' Rather, the internet is 'a chaotic repository for the
collective output of the world's digital 'printing presses''
(Lynch, 1997: 52. Available: http://www.sciam.com/) 5 April 1997. Understanding the search engines
that are presently available and their underlying logic systems
are the keys to getting started.
What is Boolean searching? The
searching of computerized data bases that is based upon Boolean
logic allows the use of terms, such as AND, OR or NOT (called operators or
connectors), to narrow, broaden or refine a search. Boolean
searching enables researchers to cut through millions of Web
documents and identify those that most clearly match their topic.
The AND operator or
connector narrows a search by limiting
the results to those items that include two or more terms.
ebonics AND "Jesse
Faulkner AND "sound
and the fury"
"beat generation" AND kerouac
homeless AND children
search for homeless AND children retrieves those
items that discuss both the homeless and children. Additional
terms may be included into the search string to further limit or
tailor the results: homeless AND children
The OR operator or
connector broadens a search by
retrieving synonyms, variant spellings or other terms that are
related to a topic. The search will find those works that include
at least one term even when the other term(s) is not present.
hoboes OR vagrants
"hate groups" OR skinheads OR "skin heads"
"affirmative action" OR "proposition 209"
songs OR music OR narratives
search for songs OR music OR narratives will
create a set of 'hits' that includes all three terms. This search
can be combined with the AND connector to refine
the search and retrieve only those items that also include the
term slaves: slaves AND (songs OR music OR narratives).
Although the use of parentheses ( ), called
nesting, is not required by all Web search engines in order to
dictate the order of operation, combining both AND and OR operators in the same search without using parentheses ( ) can lead to unexpected and unwanted
results. On the other hand, nesting terms that should be added
together first within parentheses ( ) assures the
creation of a set that will then be narrowed by the AND operator.
The NOT operator or connector excludes a term from the search.
media NOT television
(drugs OR marijuana) AND
Lincoln NOT Nebraska
"vietnam war" NOT "viet cong"
The NOT connector can be combined with other
operators to tailor a search. The following search will retrieve
letters, correspondence or memoirs related to the Vietnam War but
will exclude those of the Viet Cong: "vietnam
war" AND (letters OR correspondence OR memoirs) NOT
NOTE: The NOTconnector
is extremely powerful and should be used with caution since it
can exclude more than expected or desired. The above
search, for example, would exclude all references to the Viet
Cong in fields that were searched, thereby excluding material
that could be useful.
Effective searching of the Web makes use of
two different types of tools: search engines that seek out, index
and retrieve information within Web sites, and directories that
analyze and organize Web sites by their content or subject. With
the proliferation of Web sites and new developments in search
engine technology, using a single search engine often is not
enough. The following section discusses briefly some of the
popular search engines available today. For fuller comparisons of
these engines and their features, try these Web sites:
Sullivan, Danny. A Webmaster's
Guide to Search Engines. 1997. (Available:
http://calafia.com/webmasters/) 5 April 1997.
Hamline University Libraries. Tips
on Popular Search Engines. 1997. (Available: http://www.hamline.edu/library/bush/handouts/slahandout.html) 5 April 1997.
Keep in mind the fact that search engines
are changing and improving constantly. While the following may be
true today, new features will be added tomorrow. The help screens
of the search engines themselves are the best place to learn
about current developments.
The most established subject directory is Yahoo! (http://search.yahoo.com/). Yahoo! classifies Web sites by
category. Although a search in Yahoo! might not
retrieve the largest number of results, the significance of the
sites is often quite high. For example, a very simple Yahoo! search for homeless quickly leads to the
National Coalition for the Homeless' Home Page with links to a
series of Fact Sheets including 'How Many People Experience
Homelessness?' Simple searches in Yahoo! are a
good way to begin research on a topic. Yahoo! is
not case sensitive; it searches portions of words (homeless also retrieves homelessness); it matches at
least one of the words in a search string and returns a list of
categories as well as Web sites. The ease of repeating the search
in a larger Web environment by clicking on one of the search
engines at the bottom of the search results' page enhances the
flexibility of Yahoo!.
Excite (http://www.excite.com/) allows both Boolean searching and concept
searching, which identifies documents that are related to a topic
even if those documents do not include the actual search term(s).
Search results are confidence ranked and allow a searcher to find
sites that are more closely related to a topic by clicking on the
'More Like This' link next to a particularly relevant site.
Infoseek allows phrase
searching through quotes or by hyphenating the phrase. Infoseek does not use Boolean operators: a required word or phrase must be
preceded by a plus sign (+) and a prohibited
word or phrase by a minus sign (-) -- for
example: "vietnam war" +letters. Terms
or phrases that are found in the title, used frequently or near
the beginning of the document are ranked higher in the search
results. Infoseek includes links to 'Related
Topics,' which provides some subject organization to Web sites. Infoseek also supports restricting searches to links, sites, titles or
URLs by using Infoseek field syntax (title:"vietnam
Lycos (http://www.lycos.com/) is one of the largest search engines but,
unfortunately, it does not support Boolean searching. The default
search assumes OR between terms, although a
minus (-) symbol can be used to exclude a term. Lycos also enables a searcher to use the dollar sign ($)
as a truncation symbol and the period (.) to
search for an exact match. Specialized searches can be performed
by clicking on 'Pictures' to retrieve GIF, JPG, and MOV, etc.
files; 'Sound' retrieves WAV, SND, RA, and AU, etc. files; and
'Related Sites' displays results from its 'Search by Subject'
Internet Directory. Pictures related to the Civil Rights
Movement, for example, can be retrieved by searching for civil
rights in the 'Pictures' file. Sites with both terms (civil and rights) receive a higher ranking, and
results can be limited further by clicking on 'Match all words.'
AltaVista (http://altavista.digital.com/) is considered by many to be the premier search
engine because of its extensive coverage of the Web, including
Usenet news groups. Its all-inclusive nature, however, produces a
large number of low-quality or irrelevant hits as well. The
'Advanced Search' feature allows a full range of Boolean
searching options, including the proximity operator, NEAR,
which searches for one term within ten words of another term. An
interesting feature of AltaVista is its link to
'Live Topics,' a screen of synonyms and terms related to a topic
that can be added to or removed from a search by clicking on the
box next to the term: a search for "beat
generation," followed by a link to 'Live Topics,'
provides a list of suggested terms, performers and artists
(Kerouac, Burroughs, Ginsberg, beatniks, hippies, bohemia, etc.)
that are connected to the beat generation. AltaVista also supports filename.filetype searching, which is particularly
retrieving images and sound files: the
simple searches "martin luther" +king.jpg retrieves images and "martin luther" +king.wav retrieves sound files of Martin Luther King.
SavvySearch (http://savvy.cs.colostate.edu:2000/) is just one of the many search systems designed to
search a number of selected search engines simultaneously.
Duplicate sites are weeded from the display of results and the
engines are rated in terms of their anticipated usefulness. The
disadvantage of such a system includes the amount of time a
search may take as well as the fact that the common interface
prevents the use of customized features of individual search
Deja News (http://www.dejanews.com) searches current and archive files of news groups
for topics and discussion threads.
All search engines have unique features.
When you find one that you enjoy using, learn more about the
advanced search features that the search engine provides.
Many Web search engines use
Boolean logic, although some use symbols such as +, - or !, instead of the
operators or NOT; some require the syntax AND
NOT or BUT NOT instead of NOT;
and some AND, OR search engines
produce 'fuzzy matches,' which results in the ranking of sites in
terms of confidence and the inclusion of sites that do not match
all search terms.
When using Boolean operators, type them in
CAPS (AND, OR, NOT).
Since many search engines are not case sensitive, the CAPS
identify these words as operators rather than search terms or
unsearchable 'noise terms.'
When using a phrase, enclose it within
double quotation marks ("") because most engines search
each word individually and may default to an OR connector, retrieving an enormous number of unrelated documents.
Place the most significant term first in
the search string. Because of the weight that some search engines
place on the first term or phrase, results can be very different.
In AltaVista, for example, the search NRA
+"gun control" retrieves 2,000 hits with the
term NRA featured prominently and early in the entries; but, "gun
control" +NRA retrieves only 300 hits with a
different selection of entries at the top of the list. When in
doubt, do the search both ways.
Too many hits? Try limiting the search by
using AND or NOT connectors as
Too few hits? Try removing some search
terms or limiting operators, and introduce spelling variations,
synonyms or related terms connected by OR in the
All search engines operate differently and
retrieve different results. Try the search across a few search
engines to expand results.
Avoid common or generic terms. The more
precise and exact you are with your search terms, the more
satisfying your results will be -- especially with an
all-inclusive search engine like AltaVista.
spend some time off-line deciding what results you want and plan
your search strategy accordingly. And then, be prepared to be
Identifying quality and comprehensive
internet sites is made considerably easier by subject specialists
who are creating subject internet guides. These guides and their
links are often useful and efficient starting points in a
research plan. Following are some recommended sites that are
worth reviewing to gain an idea of the scope of source material,
Usenet news groups and listservs that are available on the
internet to support American Studies.
American Studies Association
Crossroads Project: Subject Maps in American Studies Fields (http://www.georgetown.edu/crossroads/subject_maps.html) includes useful links to sites in several areas of
American Studies such as African American studies, regional
studies, history, humanities, literature, and media studies. Some
areas are still under development, including popular culture,
journalism and political science.
The Yellow Pages (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~YP/yp_home.html) from the University of Virginia, complements the
Crossroads Project, especially in popular culture and film, and
it includes links to the American Film Institute and the Library
of Congress' Early Motion Pictures, 1897-1916.
Early American Studies Links (http://www.uc.edu/~milljw/earlyamerica.html) is a highly
eclectic and personal collection of links divided into four
categories: History and Documents, Societies and Indices, General
American Lit, and American Authors, with descriptive annotations
of the contents of the Web sites.
Yahoo American Studies Web Site (http://www.yahoo.com/Social_Science/American_Studies) includes over 350 links to American studies sites
and related information servers.
American and International Studies:
Internet Resources (http://www.ala.org/acrl/resrces.html) is one of a series of brief internet guides
published in C&RL News. This guide is divided into
sections on listservs and news groups, electronic journals,
telnet, FTP and gopher resources, as well as suggested WWW
United States Information Agency:
The Study of the United States links to scholarly
resources in American studies, American history, U.S. politics
and government, American literature, and U.S. society and
With the explosion of information on the
Web, retrieval has become more complicated, but librarians and
information specialists are organizing and identifying sites that
are particularly content-rich. Although the coverage of these
'value-added' sites is broader than just American Studies,
browsing them and using them to find quality internet sites is
The Argus Clearinghouse (http://www.clearinghouse.net/) is a central access point for topical guides that
identify, describe and evaluate internet-based information
resources. Among the broad range of subjects that are treated
are: the 1960s, counterculture, abortion debate, citizens'
rights, drunk driving, ethnic studies, feminism, history and
electronic texts, Kennedy assassination and conspiracy theory,
Native Americans, media history, hate groups and extremists,
Korean War, and Vietnam War. Each guide is dated and rated for
description, content, design, organization and meta-information.
BUBL (http://bubl.ac.uk/) offers value-added access to reliable,
high-quality and international online resources of academic,
research and professional significance to the UK Higher Education
community; its subject-tree arrangement of links to sites can be
browsed by subject, keyword or Dewey classification number.
White House Virtual Library (http://www1.whitehouse.gov/WH/html/library.html) provides access to publicly-released documents and
radio addresses since the beginning of the Clinton
administration. There are also links to some historic documents.
The search feature of the site enables the researcher to zero in
on specific topics or terminology: for example, a search for
'indispensable nation' will identify those speeches in which Bill
Clinton and Al Gore used the phrase; then, by using the FIND
feature of the Web browser, the phrase can be located within the
individual speeches, radio addresses, etc.
Library of Congress (http://lcweb.loc.gov/) links to the extraordinary and searchable American
Memory collection of primary source materials,
documents, photographs, and sound recordings related to American
culture and history, and THOMAS: Legislative Information,
which provides searching of the full-text of current bills under
consideration in the U.S. Congress.
Supreme Court Decisions in
full-text are available at several sites. FLITE (http://www.fedworld.gov/supcourt/index.htm) is a comprehensive database containing historic
decisions from 1937 through 1975; Cornell University's Legal
Information Institute (http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/) provides coverage since 1990; and Findlaw (http://www.findlaw.com/casecode/supreme.html) is a comprehensive site without the post-1975 gap.
U.S. Census Bureau (http://www.census.gov/) provides access to census data reports, along with
a search feature that identifies reports and statistics by
subject. There are links to other government agencies that gather
statistics and a link to experts at the Bureau, searchable by
Individual texts can be located on the Web
by author, title or combination searches: for example, "frederick
douglass" +narrative links to Web and gopher sites
at Mississippi State University for Narrative of the Life of
Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. Adding terms such as
diary, correspondence, letters, etc. to subject searches can
identify other primary source material: "vietnam
war" AND (correspondence OR letters OR memoirs); slaves
AND (narratives OR songs); antebellum AND texts;
TIP: Once you retrieve a
document, use the FIND feature on your Web
browser to zero in on the location and occurrence of specific
words or phrases.
The Web provides access to thousands of
texts with historical, literary, political, or social
significance. They can be located through the links found at many
of the Web sites listed above as well as at the following sites,
which represent only a small sample of what is available:
The Making of America Project is a collaborative effort between Cornell University and the
University of Michigan, focusing on the antebellum period through
reconstruction. The University of Michigan MOA collection (http://www.umdl.umich.edu/moa/) currently includes an online collection of some
200,000 pages of American publications from 1850 to 1900; by
mid-year, the collection will be extended to include
approximately 650,000 pages, including several journals. The Cornell
University MOA collection (http://moa.cit.cornell.edu/) presently includes some historic magazines, such
as Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 1889-1896 and Scientific
Voice of the Shuttle Guide to
American Literature: Web Page for Humanities Research (http://users.ox.ac.uk/~enginfo/shuttle/), Italy and Japan do not appear to be revised as
often as the main site.
e-journals: WWW Virtual Library
Electronic Journals List (http://www.edoc.com/ejournal/) provides searching and links to academic and
reviewed journals, email newsletters, magazines, newspapers as
well as alternative and political newsletters.
Although the number of searchable and
retrievable texts, documents, images, video and sound files,
statistical resources, and journal and newspapers articles
continues to increase on the Web, copyright restrictions and
intellectual property rights will always limit the amount of
material that is freely available. However, many commercial
vendors now deliver the full-text of copyrighted materials over
the Web by subscription to institutions, and some services also
ship documents to individuals via a credit card. Some of the
commercial services that deliver documents to individuals can be
found at or through these sites:
BUBL (http://bubl.ac.uk/journals/) links to electronic journals and commercial
electronic journal services with downloadable texts.
EBSCOdoc (http://www.ebscodoc.com/) provides document delivery to individuals through
an electronically linked network of worldwide library sources.
UnCover (http://uncweb.carl.org/) is an online article delivery service, a table of
contents database, and a keyword index to nearly 17,000
periodicals. Searching the database is
free, and the delivery of documents can be
charged to a standard credit card.
Project Muse (http://muse.jhu.edu/), providing worldwide access to the full text of
Johns Hopkins Press' 40+ journals in the humanities, social
sciences and mathematics, is experimenting with individual as
well as institutional subscriptions.
From a single workstation, a researcher can
access public, academic and research library catalogues
throughout the world. Some of these catalogues are searchable
through Web-based interfaces that simplify the mechanics of
searching. The point and click functionality of the Web has been
incorporated into these catalogues, thus reducing the need to
master the idiosyncrasies of many different library search
engines. A comprehensive site that links to Web-based catalogues
is WebCats: Library Catalogues on the World Wide Web (http://library.usask.ca/hywebcat/).
Online catalogues are searchable by author,
title, subject, and keyword, plus an assortment of
catalogue-specific search features. Generally, keyword searching
in library catalogues follows Boolean search logic: using the AND operator in the search, Vietnam AND letters,
retrieves those records that have both terms. The search, letters
AND Vietnam, returns exactly the same results since
library catalogues generally do not rank or weigh results based
upon the first term in the search. By and large, library
catalogues do not perform 'fuzzy matches' in the way that some
Web search engines do.
Subject cataloguing, which classifies and
groups similar materials together, is a powerful research tool as
long as one knows the proper subject heading and syntax of the
Library of Congress subject heading. Keyword searching, on the
other hand, allows the use of natural language. Thanks to
Web-based catalogues, a researcher can maximize the power of
subject searching through the ease of keyword searching. For
example, to identify print collections of letters and
correspondence written by soldiers in the Vietnam War, a 'quick
and dirty' keyword search in a Web-based catalogue, Vietnam
AND letters, might return only a couple of titles, such
1. Dear America: letters
home from Vietnam/the New York Viet (1985)
2. Shrapnel in the heart:
letters and remembrances from the Vi (1987)
But by clicking on Dear America:
letters home from Vietnam, the full bibliographic record
for this book is retrieved along with a link to its Library of
Congress subject heading: Vietnamese Conflict,
1961-1975 -- Personal narratives, American. Clicking
on this subject heading automatically executes the subject search
within the catalogue and displays hundreds of references to other
narrative sources that were not retrieved through keyword
searching -- all without the need to know the restrictive
vocabulary (Vietnamese Conflict instead of Vietnam
War) or syntax (dates, dashes, subdivisions, etc.) used
in the Library of Congress subject heading.
Not all library catalogues are Web-based,
but many are also available on the internet through telnet. One
Web site that provides links to these catalogues and logon
instructions is HYTELNET (http://library.usask.ca/hytelnet/).
Many library catalogues also provide access
to periodical and newspaper indices, abstracts, and full-text
services for their primary clientele. These services generally
are not available to outside searchers, regardless of Web
The criteria that we use to evaluate the
information we find in books, journals and newspapers include the
credibility and authority of the author, the reputation of the
publisher, and the reliability, accuracy and currency of the
information. Just as we instinctively evaluate information in
print sources, we must hold Web-based information up to even
greater critical scrutiny, especially since anyone with a
computer and HTML proficiency can become a Web publisher -- the
ultimate vanity press.
Through the editing process, print
materials undergo scrutiny and evaluation any number of times
before publication. Commercial publishers have established
reputations, and the credibility that comes with their
reputations extend to their publications. We tend to attribute
more authority and accuracy to articles published in refereed
journals than those that are not refereed because we value the
peer review process. Books and journals, purchased by libraries,
go through a selection process that is often based upon
authoritative reviews. Although some Web sites do receive
rigorous review, the Web also contains much that is raw,
unedited, spurious, inaccurate, inflammatory, or simply not
refereed. 'This problem has intensified as more and more
resources are placed and distributed on the Web without editors
and fact checkers (the traditional gate-keepers for print
publications) monitoring them to assure quality.' (Tate and
Alexander, 1996: 49)
So how should we evaluate Web-based
information? What questions should we ask? The following provides
a starting point:
What is the credibility of the author? Can
you determine if s/he is an expert in the field? Is there a link
to a Home Page? Is there a feedback function on the page or an
How reliable is the information? Although
quantity does not ensure quality, one indicator of reliability
might be the number of quality links to
the site. Both Infoseek and AltaVista have search features that identify sites that have linked to a
particular page. Another indicator might be the site's inclusion
in Excite Reviews, Lycos Top 5% Reviewed
Sites, WebCrawler Select, or in some of
the 'value-added' internet guides such as Argus
Clearinghouse or BUBL. Restricting a
search to a specific domain (such as gov, org, edu, etc.), as is
possible with AltaVista, can help weed out some
less-reliable sites. Keep in mind, however, that an edu domain
will be just as likely to include information written by an
undergraduate student as it will to have information written by a
How current and/or secure is the
information? Using the View function on a Netscape browser, you
can sometimes determine and/or verify the date the page was
mounted and last revised, and verify encryption information.
What is the value of the information as
compared with print sources? Just because the information can be
retrieved by computer does not endow it with intrinsic value.
Sometimes print is better and faster.
Does the site have a particular bias?
Although information coming from the National Rifle Association
or the American Civil Liberties Union may be very useful and
valuable, it also clearly will have a bias that can be recognized
and acknowledged. The bias in other sites may not always be as
Is there an attempt to sell something?
For additional essays and guidelines on
evaluation of Web resources, take a look at the following sites:
Widener University Libraries. Evaluation
of Web Resources
Esther Grassian. Thinking
Critically about World Wide Web Resources
The ease of downloading information and the
cutting and pasting functions on many computers make it that much
more important to cite sources properly in order to protect the
intellectual property rights of the author of a Web document, and
to enable the next reader to locate the source document. The
instability of the Web, as compared to print sources, is
problematic for a researcher and, therefore, the full and
complete citing of a Web document is absolutely essential.
In general, it is necessary to provide as
much information as possible to enable someone to locate the
document. This includes the same information as a printed source plus the Protocol (if applicable): Site/Path/File and, finally, the
date when the Web document was accessed by the researcher. Recent
editions of most, if not all, style guides now provide examples
of citation formats for internet and Web-based documents. MLA and
APA style manuals for internet resources are also available on
the Web through this site:
Li, Xia and Crane, Nancy. Bibliographic
Formats for Citing Electronic Information. 1997.
Available: http://www.uvm.edu/~ncrane/estyles/) 5 April 1997.
Final Tip: As you surf the
Web, you will find your own favorite sites to which you will want
to return. Serendipitously, you will stumble across an absolute
gem of a Web site. Be sure that you either download all of your
favorite Web sites onto a disk, or at the very least, write down
the full and complete URL. You'll be
glad that you did! It's a big Web out there. Enjoy the ride!
Campbell, D. and Campbell, M. (1995) The
Student's Guide to Doing Research on the Internet. Reading,
Pamela Wonsek is Associate Librarian for
Public Services at Hunter College, City University of New
York and Adjunct Associate Professor in the Communications
Department, Hunter College. She is the author of 'College
Basketball on Television: A Study of Racism in the Media,'
(1992) Media, Culture and Society. She may be
contacted with questions or comments at email@example.com. April, 1997.
Gates, J.K. (1994) Guide to the Use of
Libraries and Information Sources. 7th ed. New York:
Harris, C. (1996) An Internet
Education: A Guide to Doing Research on the Internet.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
'The Internet: Fulfilling the Promise
[Special Report],' (1997) Scientific American 276 (3):
50-83. (Available: http://www.sciam.com/)
5 April 1997.
Li, X. and Crane, N. (1996) Electronic
Styles: A Handbook for Citing Electronic Information. 2d ed.
Medford, NJ: Information Today, Inc. Lynch, C. (1997) 'Searching the Internet,' Scientific
American 276 (3): 52-56. (Available: http://www.sciam.com/) 5 April 1997. Owen, T., Owston, R. and Dickie, C. (1995) The
Learning Highway: A Student's Guide to Using the Internet in High
School and College. Toronto: Key Porter Books. Perry, L.S. (1996) 'American and
International Studies: Internet Resources,' College &
Research Libraries News 57 (9): 570-75. (Available: http://www.ala.org/acrl/resrces.html) 5 April 1997.
Perry, L.S. (1995) 'Using the Internet for
International Research,' American Studies Quarterly 33
Tate, M. and Alexander, J. (1996) 'Teaching
Critical Evaluation Skills for World Wide Web Resources,' Computers
in Libraries, 16 (10): 49-55.
* * * * *
American Studies Today Online is published by
American Studies Resources Centre, Aldham Robarts Library, Liverpool John Moores University, Maryland Street,
Liverpool L1 9DE, United Kingdom
Tel 0151-231 3241
The views expressed are those of the contributors, and not
necessarily those of the Centre or the College.
© 1997, City of Liverpool College and the Contributors.
Articles in this journal may be freely reproduced for use in
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